The current article reviews the literature on parenting among women with EDs, and outlines the process of developing an intervention addressing their parenting concerns.
OBJECTIVE: This study tested a psychosocial model of binge eating symptoms in obese men and women. Predictor variables included depression, dietary restraint, self-esteem, weight cycling, history of teasing, body dissatisfaction, and neuroticism. METHOD: Participants (N = 808) completed a packet of self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: Weight cycling, teasing about weight and shape, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and dietary restraint comprised the best fitting models (original and cross-validation) for binge eating in women and men. These variables explained 61-72% of the variance in symptoms of binge eating in the samples of men and 70% of the variance in the samples of women. Although the male and female models were mostly similar, notable differences between them were found. DISCUSSION: The variables that comprise these etiological models should be considered in the development of prevention programs for obese binge eaters. Longitudinal studies, however, are needed to examine these etiological paths and to test for causal relationships.
OBJECTIVE: A new measure of body image, named the body image assessment for obesity (BIA-O) was developed and tested for reliability and validity in a sample of 1,209 adult men and women. Separate BIA-O procedures were developed for men and women. Current, ideal and reasonable body image estimates of Caucasian and African-American men and women were compared. METHOD: Figural stimuli of males and females were developed for body sizes ranging from very thin to very obese in 18 increments. Participants selected figures that represented estimates of current, ideal and reasonable (a body size that could be maintained over time) body size. Some participants (n=641) also completed two measures of body dissatisfaction in a test of the validity of the BIA-O as a measure of body dissatisfaction. A sample of 77 participants was administered the BIA-O on two occasions to test the test-retest reliability of the BIA-O. RESULTS: The reliability of the BIA-O was supported by test-retest reliability coefficients which ranged from 0.65 to 0.93. Concurrent validity of the discrepancy between current and ideal and current and reasonable body size estimates was supported by positive correlations with two measures of body dissatisfaction. The BIA-O body size estimates of Caucasians and African-Americans, controlled for age and BMI, were compared. As BMI increased, Caucasian men and women were found to select larger current body size estimates in comparison to African-Americans. DISCUSSION: The reliability and validity of the BIA-O were supported. Greater body size dissatisfaction in obese Caucasians, relative to African-Americans of the same size, may be a function of biased estimates of current body size.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate long-term outcome and prognosis in a bulimic and subthreshold bulimic sample. METHOD: In a follow-up study, 44 patients diagnosed with bulimia nervosa and subthreshold bulimia nervosa were contacted after an average follow-up period of 9 years. RESULTS: Results revealed that 72.7% (n = 32) of the participants were recovered at the time of follow-up. An investigation of prognostic variables showed that good outcome was associated with a shorter duration of illness, which was defined as the time between onset of symptoms and first treatment intervention. If participants were initially treated within the first few years of the illness, the probability of recovery was above 80%. However, if they were initially treated 15 years or more after the onset of the illness, the probability of recovery fell below 20%. DISCUSSION: This finding suggests that early identification of bulimia nervosa may be a very important factor in preventing a chronic eating disorder.