Lawrence Gregory Appelbaum

Lawrence Gregory Appelbaum

Associate Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Education & Training

  • Ph.D., University of California at Irvine 2004


Greg Appelbaum is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences in the Duke University School of Medicine. He is a member of the Brain Stimulation Division of Psychiatry, where he directs the Human Performance Optimization lab (Opti Lab) and the Brain Stimulation Research Center   As a member of the Duke Institute for Brain Sciences he teaches and advises in the Neuroscience major, is an affiliate of the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, and has a secondary appointment in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience. 

Dr. Appelbaum's research interests primarily concern the brain mechanisms underlying visual cognition, how these capabilities differ among individuals, and how they can be improved through behavioral, neurofeedback, and neuromodulation interventions. Within the field of cognitive neuroscience, his research has addressed visual perception, sensorimotor function, executive function, decision-making, and learning/expertise. In this research, he has utilized a combination of behavioral psychophysics coupled with the neuroscience techniques of electroencephalography (EEG), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). 

Teel, EF, Marshall, SW, Appelbaum, LG, Battaglini, CL, Carneiro, KA, Guskiewicz, KM, Register-Mihalik, JK, and Mihalik, JP. "A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Feasibility and Adherence to an Aerobic Training Program in Healthy Individuals." Journal of Sport Rehabilitation (January 30, 2019): 1-7. Full Text

Beynel, L, Davis, SW, Crowell, CA, Hilbig, SA, Lim, W, Nguyen, D, Palmer, H, Brito, A, Peterchev, AV, Luber, B, Lisanby, SH, Cabeza, R, and Appelbaum, LG. "Online repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation during working memory in younger and older adults: A randomized within-subject comparison." Plos One 14.3 (January 2019): e0213707-null. Full Text

Teel, EF, Register-Mihalik, JK, Appelbaum, LG, Battaglini, CL, Carneiro, KA, Guskiewicz, KM, Marshall, SW, and Mihalik, JP. "Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Aerobic Training and Common Sport-Related Concussion Outcomes in Healthy Participants." Journal of Athletic Training 53.12 (December 18, 2018): 1156-1165. Full Text

Davis, SW, Crowell, CA, Beynel, L, Deng, L, Lakhlani, D, Hilbig, SA, Lim, W, Nguyen, D, Peterchev, AV, Luber, BM, Lisanby, SH, Appelbaum, LG, and Cabeza, R. "Complementary topology of maintenance and manipulation brain networks in working memory." Scientific Reports 8.1 (December 13, 2018): 17827-null. Full Text

Addicott, MA, Daughters, SB, Strauman, TJ, and Appelbaum, LG. "Distress tolerance to auditory feedback and functional connectivity with the auditory cortex." Psychiatry Research. Neuroimaging 282 (December 2018): 1-10. Full Text

Burris, K, Vittetoe, K, Ramger, B, Suresh, S, Tokdar, ST, Reiter, JP, and Appelbaum, LG. "Sensorimotor abilities predict on-field performance in professional baseball." Scientific Reports 8.1 (January 8, 2018): 116-null. Full Text

Rao, HM, Khanna, R, Zielinski, DJ, Lu, Y, Clements, JM, Potter, ND, Sommer, MA, Kopper, R, and Appelbaum, LG. "Sensorimotor Learning during a Marksmanship Task in Immersive Virtual Reality." Frontiers in Psychology 9 (January 2018): 58-null. Full Text Open Access Copy

Klemish, D, Ramger, B, Vittetoe, K, Reiter, JP, Tokdar, ST, and Appelbaum, LG. "Visual abilities distinguish pitchers from hitters in professional baseball." Journal of Sports Sciences 36.2 (January 2018): 171-179. Full Text

Appelbaum, LG, and Erickson, G. "Sports vision training: A review of the state-of-the-art in digital training techniques." International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology 11.1 (January 1, 2018): 160-189. (Review) Full Text


Jack, J, Appelbaum, LG, Beam, E, Moody, J, and Huettel, SA. "Mapping rhetorical topologies in cognitive neuroscience." Topologies as Techniques for a Post-Critical Rhetoric. January 1, 2017. 125-150. Full Text

Clements, JM, Kopper, R, Zielinski, DJ, Rao, H, Sommer, MA, Kirsch, E, Mainsah, BO, Collins, LM, and Appelbaum, LG. "Neurophysiology of Visual-Motor Learning during a Simulated Marksmanship Task in Immersive Virtual Reality." August 24, 2018. Full Text Open Access Copy

Selected Grants

Impact of Timing, Targeting, and Brain State on rTMS of Human and Non-Human Primates awarded by National Institutes of Health (Co Investigator). 2017 to 2021

Transcranial magnetic stimulation with enhanced focality and depth (fdTMS) awarded by National Institutes of Health (Advisor). 2017 to 2021

Accurate and reliable computational dosimetry and targeting for transcranial magnetic stimulation awarded by National Institutes of Health (Collaborator). 2019 to 2021

Quiet TMS: A Low-Acoustic-Noise Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation System awarded by National Institutes of Health (Co Investigator). 2016 to 2020

Using fMRI-guided TMS to increase central executive function in older adults awarded by National Institutes of Health (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2020

Neurophysiology and Cognitive Neuroscience (8.4): Sensorimotor Function in Elite Soldiers and Athletes awarded by Department of Defense (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2019

Tracking Neurological Function in Warrior-Athletes: A Multidisciplinary Approach awarded by University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (Principal Investigator). 2014 to 2015

Studies of Attention Using Combined ERPs and fMRI awarded by National Institutes of Health (Postdoctoral Associate). 2001 to 2015