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## Infinite Energy Solutions for Dissipative Euler Equations in R2

We study the system of Euler equations with the so-called Ekman damping in the whole 2D space. The global well-posedness and dissipativity for the weak infinite energy solutions of this problem in the uniformly local spaces is verified based on the further development of the weighted energy theory for the Navier–Stokes and Euler type problems. In addition, the existence of weak locally compact global attractor is proved and some extra compactness of this attractor is obtained. © 2015, The Author(s).

We construct asymptotic solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations describing periodic systems of vortex filaments filling a three-dimensional volume. Such solutions are related to certain topological invariants of divergence-free vector fields on the two-dimensional torus. The equations describing the evolution of such a structure are defined on a graph which is the set of trajectories of a divergence-free field.

This paper investigated the household consumption behavior in Russia. The model assumes that household consumption can be described by the Euler equation. Using panel data on households (Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey–Higher School of Economics [RLMSHSE]) from 2000 to 2011, we obtained the estimates of the elasticity of intertemporal substitution.

An initial-boundary value problem for the 1D self-adjoint parabolic equation on the half-axis is solved. We study a broad family of two-level finite-difference schemes with two parameters related to averages both in time and space. Stability in two norms is proved by the energy method. Also discrete transparent boundary conditions are rigorously derived for schemes by applying the method of reproducing functions. Results of numerical experiments are included as well.

A quasi-gasdynamic system of equations with a mass force and a heat source is well known in the case of the perfect polytropic gas. In the paper, the system is generalized to the case of general equations of gas state satisfying thermodynamic stability conditions. The entropy balance equation is studied. The validity of the non-negativity property is algebraically analyzed for the entropy production. Two different forms of writing are derived for its relaxation summands. Under a condition on the heat source intensity, the property is valid.

An application to one-dimensional Euler real gas dynamics equations is given. A two-level explicit symmetric in space finite-difference scheme is constructed. The scheme is tested in the cases of the stiffened gas and the Van der Waals gas equations of state.

We construct an example of blow-up in a ”ow of min-plus linear operators arising as solution operators for a Hamilton…Jacobi equation @S/@t+|∇S|/ + U(x, t) = 0, where > 1 and the potential U(x, t) is uniformly bounded together with its gradient. The construction is based on the fact that, for a suitable potential de“ned on a time interval of length T, the absolute value of velocity for a Lagrangian minimizer can be as large as O(log T)2−2/. We also show that this growth estimate cannot be surpassed. Implications of this example for existence of global generalized solutions to randomly forced Hamilton…Jacobi or Burgers equations are discussed.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.