Inquiry into how memory changes in and supports the effects of traumatic events, and its relation to current diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Examination of differences across cultures in understanding trauma and responses to it. Integration of behavioral theory and observation with its neural basis, including neuroimaging. Topics include ongoing debates about accuracy, narrative coherence, and involuntary memory. Levels of analysis range from neural substrates, through behavior and thought processes to the social construction of memory and trauma. Research projects use primary and secondary materials, empirical observations, or reanalysis of existing data.